Freud wrote to his friend Wilhelm Fliess in "Anna has become downright beautiful through naughtiness. Later on Anna Freud would say that she didn't learn much in school; instead she learned from her father and his guests at home. Suffering from a depression and anorexia ,  she was very insecure about what to do in the future. A visit to Britain in the autumn of , which her father's colleague, Ernest Jones , chaperoned, became of concern to Freud when he learned of the latter's romantic intentions.
His advice to Jones, in a letter of 22 July , was that his daughter " There is an outspoken understanding between me and her that she should not consider marriage or the preliminaries before she gets two or three years older".
In she passed the test to work as a teaching apprentice at her old school, the Cottage Lyceum. From to , she worked as a teaching apprentice for third, fourth, and fifth graders. For the school year , she began 'her first venture as Klassenlehrerin head teacher for the second grade'. After experiencing multiple episodes of illness Anna Freud resigned her teaching post in This enabled her to pursue further her growing interest in her father's work and writings.
In she presented her paper "Beating Fantasies and Daydreams" to the Vienna Psychoanalytical Society and became a member of the society. In , she began her own psychoanalytical practice with children and by she was teaching at the Vienna Psychoanalytic Training Institute on the technique of child analysis, her approach to which she set out in her first book, An Introduction to the Technique of Child Analysis published in From until , she was the Secretary of the International Psychoanalytical Association while she continued child analysis and contributed to seminars and conferences on the subject.
In , she became director of the Vienna Psychoanalytical Training Institute and the following year she published her influential study of the "ways and means by which the ego wards off depression, displeasure and anxiety", The Ego and the Mechanisms of Defence. It became a founding work of ego psychology and established Freud's reputation as a pioneering theoretician. Among the first children Anna Freud took into analysis were those of Dorothy Burlingham.
In Burlingham, heiress to the Tiffany luxury jewellery retailer, had arrived in Vienna from New York with her four children and entered analysis firstly with Theodore Reik and then, with a view to training in child analysis, with Freud himself. In , following the Anschluss in which Nazi Germany occupied Austria, Anna was taken to Gestapo headquarters in Vienna for questioning on the activities of the International Psychoanalytical Association.
Unknown to her father, she and her brother Martin had obtained Veronal from Max Schur , the family doctor, in sufficient quantities to commit suicide if faced with torture or internment. However, she survived her interrogation ordeal and returned to the family home. After her father had reluctantly accepted the urgent need to leave Vienna, she set about organising the complex immigration process for the family in liaison with Ernest Jones , the then President of the International Psychoanalytical Association, who secured the immigration permits that eventually led to the family establishing their new home in London at 20 Maresfield Gardens, Hampstead.
In Freud and Burlingham collaborated in establishing the Hampstead War Nursery for children whose lives had been disrupted by the war. Premises were acquired in Hampstead, North London and in Essex to provide education and residential care with mothers encouraged to visit as often as practicable. Many for the staff were recruited from the exiled Austro- German diaspora.
Lectures and seminars on psychoanalytic theory and practice were regular features of staff training. Freud and Burlingham went on to publish a series of observational studies on child development based on the work of the Nursery with a focus on the impact of stress on children and their capacity to find substitute affections among peers in the absence of their parents. Building on and developing their war-time work with children, Freud and Burlingham established the Hampstead Child Therapy Course and Clinic now the Anna Freud National Centre for Children and Families in as a centre for therapy, training and research work.
Their disagreements, which dated back to the s, centered around the theory of the genesis of the super-ego and the consequent clinical approach to the pre-Oedipal child; Klein argued for play as an equivalent to free association in adult analyses. Anna Freud opposed any such equivalence, proposing an educative intervention with the child until an appropriate level of ego development was reached at the Oedipal stage.
Klein held this to be a collusive inhibition of analytical work with the child. To avoid a terminal split in the BPS Ernest Jones, its President, chaired a number of "extraordinary business meetings" with the aim of defusing the conflict, and these continued during the war years. The meetings, which became known as the Controversial Discussions , were established on a more regular basis from In there finally emerged a compromise agreement which established parallel training courses, providing options to satisfy the concerns of the rival groups that had formed: followers of Anna Freud, followers of Melanie Klein and a non-aligned group of Middle or Independent Group analysts.
It was agreed further that all the key policy-making committees of the BPS should have representatives from the three groups. From the s until the end of her life Freud travelled regularly to the United States to lecture, to teach and to visit friends. During the s she was concerned with the problems of emotionally deprived and socially disadvantaged children, and she studied deviations and delays in development.
At Yale Law School , she taught seminars on crime and the family: this led to a transatlantic collaboration with Joseph Goldstein and Albert J. Freud naturalised as a British subject on 22 July Freud died in London on 9 October She was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium and her ashes placed in a marble shelf next to her parents' ancient Greek funeral urn. In her London home of forty years was transformed, according to her wishes, into the Freud Museum , dedicated to the memory of her father.
Anna Freud was a prolific writer, contributing articles on psychoanalysis to many different publications throughout her lifetime. Her first publication was titled, An Introduction to Psychoanalysis: Lectures for Child Analysts and Teachers  , and was the result of four different lectures she was delivering at the time, to teachers and caretakers of young children in Vienna. Anna Freud's first article Beating fantasies and daydreams ,  'drew in part on her own inner life, but th[at] For her next major work in , her 'classic monograph on ego psychology and defense mechanisms, Anna Freud drew on her own clinical experience, but relied on her father's writings as the principal and authoritative source of her theoretical insights'.
Special attention was paid in it to later childhood and adolescent developments — 'I have always been more attracted to the latency period than the pre-Oedipal phases'  — emphasising how the 'increased intellectual, scientific, and philosophical interests of this period represent attempts at mastering the drives'. The reaction-formations, which seemed to be firmly established in the structure of the ego, threaten to fall to pieces".
Selma Fraiberg 's tribute of that 'The writings of Anna Freud on ego psychology and her studies in early child development have illuminated the world of childhood for workers in the most varied professions and have been for me my introduction and most valuable guide  spoke at that time for most of psychoanalysis outside the Kleinian heartland. Arguably, however, it was in Anna Freud's London years 'that she wrote her most distinguished psychoanalytic papers — including "About Losing and Being Lost", which everyone should read regardless of their interest in psychoanalysis'.
Focusing thereafter on research, observation and treatment of children, Anna Freud established a group of prominent child developmental analysts which included Erik Erikson , Edith Jacobson and Margaret Mahler who noticed that children's symptoms were ultimately analogue to personality disorders among adults and thus often related to developmental stages.
Her book Normality and Pathology in Childhood summarised 'the use of developmental lines charting theoretical normal growth "from dependency to emotional self-reliance"'. Nevertheless, her basic loyalty to her father's work remained unimpaired, and it might indeed be said that 'she devoted her life to protecting her father's legacy In her theoretical work there would be little criticism of him, and she would make what is still the finest contribution to the psychoanalytic understanding of passivity',  or what she termed 'altruistic surrender Sigmund Freud biographer Louis Breger observed that Anna Freud's publications 'contain few original ideas and are, for the most part, a slavish application of her father's theories.
Jacques Lacan called 'Anna Freud the plumb line of psychoanalysis.
With psychoanalysis continuing to move away from classical Freudianism to other concerns, it may still be salutary to heed Anna Freud's warning about the potential loss of her father's 'emphasis on conflict within the individual person, the aims, ideas and ideals battling with the drives to keep the individual within a civilized community. It has become modern to water this down to every individual's longing for perfect unity with his mother There is an enormous amount that gets lost this way'.
You asked me what I consider essential personal qualities in a future psychoanalyst. The answer is comparatively simple. If you want to be a real psychoanalyst you have to have a great love of the truth, scientific truth as well as personal truth, and you have to place this appreciation of truth higher than any discomfort at meeting unpleasant facts, whether they belong to the world outside or to your own inner person.
Further, I think that a psychoanalyst should have This point contains You ought to be a great reader and become acquainted with the literature of many countries and cultures. In the great literary figures you will find people who know at least as much of human nature as the psychiatrists and psychologists try to do. Aspects of Michelangelo: By Nathan Leites. Berger, M. Psychoanalytic Consultations in Preschools. Emotions and Behavior Monograph 5.
Rebecca Smith Behrends and Sidney J. XL, Intergenerational Separation-Individuation. Treating the Mother-Infant Pair. Peter Blos, Jr.
Maria V. XL, Remembered Images and Trauma. A Psychology of the Supernatural. Lenore Cagen Terr.
Donald R. Richard P. Elisa G. David Dean Brockman.
John L. Loretta R. Arthur D. Philip Wilson. Evelyne Kestemberg. James F. Masterson, Pp. Moses Laufer. Charles S. Gardner and Susan Wagner. Norman D. Michael H.
Stone, M. Ann Rasmussen and Stanley B. L, Electrophysiological Studies of Schizophrenia. Terry Patterson. L, Acting Out the Countertransference. James L. Nash and James B. Beth L. Donald B. Michael K. Joseph M. Hyland; Alfredo Namnum; William S. Timoth Anderson.