Scientific Development and Misconceptions Through the Ages: A Reference Guide

Scientific Development and Misconceptions Through the Ages
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In its more recent history, the field of biology education has focused much effort on identifying common misconceptions, uncovering biological ideas that are particularly challenging for students, and developing classroom-ready tools that can measure the presence, absence, or changes of these ideas, especially in the context of undergraduate biology classrooms. Much less attention has been given to developing or borrowing theoretical frameworks that might provide a more synthetic or unified set of hypotheses about why so many students seem to think the way they do Henderson et al.

Some attempts have been made to explore the role of difficulties in thinking across size and scale as a potential unifying impediment in biological thinking, though this has been primarily employed with regard to misconceptions about energy and matter and the ideas of photosynthesis and cellular respiration e. However, theoretical frameworks such as those embodied in the cognitive construals of developmental cognitive psychology—exemplified here as teleological, essentialist, and anthropocentric thinking—are largely invisible in the biology education literature for exceptions, see Tamir and Zhar, ; Rosengren et al.

Our purpose is not to propose that the cognitive construals presented here are necessarily the only or even the most useful theoretical frameworks from another discipline that could be used by biology educators. Although we do think that these construals hold great promise and have attempted to provide corresponding evidence, our greater purpose is to encourage biology educators to engage in disciplinary border-crossing.

The theoretical frameworks of many disciplines—including the cognitive construals of developmental cognitive psychology presented here—hold great potential for revealing common origins of apparently disparate student challenges in learning biology.

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In fact, such theoretical frameworks could provide an entirely novel approach to biology education reform, one that moves away from attempting to correct an ever-growing list of biological misconceptions piecemeal and instead moves toward engaging students in a systematic re-examination of deeply held intuitive ways of knowing—ways that are useful in everyday reasoning outside the classroom but might represent a stubborn impediment to the development of expert thinking in biological science. Coley and K. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author s.

It is available to the public under an Attribution—Noncommercial—Share Alike 3. John D. Kimberly D. Tanner Address correspondence to: Kimberly D. Add to favorites Download Citations Track Citations.

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Abstract Many ideas in the biological sciences seem especially difficult to understand, learn, and teach successfully. Why essences are essential in the psychology of concepts. Cognition 82 , Development and evaluation of the conceptual inventory of natural selection. J Res Sci Teach 39 , Teaching genetics at secondary school: a strategy for teaching about the location of inheritance information.

Sci Educ 84 , Student conceptions of natural selection and its role in evolution. J Res Sci Teach 27 , Google Scholar Carey S Developmental continuity in the teleo-functional bias: reasoning about nature among Romanian Roma adults Gypsies.

Science education

J Cogn Dev 9 , Google Scholar Coley JD Emerging differentiation of folkbiology and folkpsychology: attributions of biological and psychological properties to living things. Child Dev 66 , Where the wild things are: informal experience and ecological reasoning. Child Dev 83 , Google Scholar Gelman SA The importance of knowing a dodo is a bird: categories and inferences in 2-year-old children.

Dev Psychol 26 , Categories and induction in young children. Cognition 23 , Google Scholar Greene ED Research data necessary for meaningful review of grade ten high school genetics curricula. J Res Sci Teach 21 , BioScience 61 , Facilitating change in undergraduates STEM instructional practices: an analytic review of the literature. J Res Sci Teach 48 , Google Scholar Inagaki K The effects of raising animals on children's biological knowledge.

Br J Dev Psychol 8 , Constrained person analogy in young children's biological inference. Cogn Dev 6 , Google Scholar Kahneman D Google Scholar Keil FC Google Scholar Kelemen D a. The scope of teleological thinking in preschool children. Cognition 70 , Why are rocks pointy?

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Children's preference for teleological explanations of the natural world. Dev Psychol 35 , The human function compunction: teleological explanation in adults. Cognition , Int J Sci Educ 26 , What's in a cell? J Biol Educ 34 , Google Scholar Murphy GL Category-based induction. Psychol Rev 97 , A modeling approach to teaching evolutionary biology in high schools.

Google Scholar Rips LJ Inductive judgments about natural categories. J Verbal Learning Verbal Behavior 14 , Cultural and experien-tial differences in the development of biological induction. Cogn Dev 18 , A diagnostic assessment for introductory molecular and cell biology. Cogn Psychol 52 , The Genetics Concept Assessment: a new concept inventory for gauging student understanding of genetics.

Like father like son: young children's understanding of how and why offspring resemble their parents. Child Dev 67 , Can middle-school science textbooks help students learn important ideas? Findings from Project 's curriculum evaluation study: life science. J Res Sci Teach 41 , Anthropomorphism and teleology in reasoning about biological phenomena. Sci Educ 75 , Boys will be boys, cows will be cows: children's essentialist reasoning about human gender and animal development.

Child Dev 79 , Retrieval practice involves retrieving something you have learnt in the past and bringing it back to mind. You can use retrieval to review past learning before introducing new related learning. Encourage pupils to elaborate on what they have learnt. Elaboration involves describing and explaining in detail something you have learnt. This approach supports learning by integrating new information with existing prior knowledge, helping to embed it in the long-term memory.

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Scientific Development and Misconceptions Through the Ages: A Reference Guide [Robert E. Krebs] on ogunprofesda.ml *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Editorial Reviews. Review. "As Krebs asserts, an understanding of science as well as the Scientific Development and Misconceptions Through the Ages: A Reference Guide - Kindle edition by Robert E. Krebs. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Use features like bookmarks, note .

This is useful as pupils progress in their understanding of a concept. It is important that you are clear about the skills or knowledge that you are trying to develop in your pupils with a particular practical activity.

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Vigorous exercise can improve mental function C. This book is not available as an inspection copy. Gaps in the fossil record disprove evolution. We share anatomical, biochemical, and behavioral traits with other animals. Of course, some species may possess traits that allow them to thrive under conditions of environmental change caused by humans and so may be selected for, but others may not and so may go extinct. For example, reading aloud to students offers opportunities to present new words in meaningful contexts.

Think through the best approach to developing these things and plan how to sequence it with other learning. It is unreasonable to expect lasting learning of a scientific concept from a single, relatively brief practical activity. Practical work is an important string to your bow, but as a successful science teacher you will use it alongside a range of other activities.

Science, for humans, is the most powerful way of discovering truth about the world. A scientific attitude is an attribute that will serve pupils well in life. Every time you do an experiment, you can model some aspect of scientific reasoning. Even if the main purpose of the experiment is to develop a particular scientific theory or a scientific skill, you can point out how you are using scientific methodology.

There are different ways to expose pupils to the processes of practical science, from virtual experiments to open-ended projects.

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An approach to practical work that requires more time involves open-ended projects, with pupils pursuing a project of their own choosing over an extended period of time. Providing project opportunities within the constrained curriculum, especially at GCSE, is challenging.

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But there are opportunities for project work outside the timetable and in STEM clubs. Be aware of the vocabulary demands of a topic and make a conscious choice about the words that you are going to teach and when to introduce them. Focus on the words that pupils really need to understand and make sure they understand them well. Less is more: a deep understanding of fewer words is better than understanding lots of words at a surface level. Teach new scientific vocabulary explicitly. It is important that the texts pupils are reading are at an appropriate level, but challenging and interesting; pupils should have the opportunity to engage with authentic scientific books and texts.

The use of authentic texts does not mean that all pupils need to be reading journal articles but they should have access to quality texts from a range of sources, including news articles and parts of popular science books.