It also allowed for lighter colored silk that could be dyed many colors.
The life cycle of a silk worm is one year, and the Chinese found that cocoons harvested in the Spring were of higher quality. Another Chinese practice was to steam the cocoon. This killed the pupa inside and gently loosened the silk strands so it would unravel easily and produce superior silk. Half of the cocoons were steamed for silk and the other half was allowed to hatch to produce worms for the following year.
Because the pupa was killed before it could begin to hatch from the cocoon, Chinese silk was stronger and easier to load into a loom. A single cocoon could have up to one mile of silk but several stands were combined to make each thread.
The New Silk Roads: East Asia and World Textile Markets (Trade and Development) [Kym Anderson] on ogunprofesda.ml *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Cambridge Core - International Economics - The New Silk Roads - edited by Kym Anderson. East Asia and World Textile Markets. The New Silk Roads.
The finished product could be sold as raw silk textiles or dyed into beautiful material or garments. Silk was a luxury item that was in high demand for those who could afford it. In the 7th century, China's Tang emperor sent several military expeditions to the northwest.
The purpose of these was to defend the border against nomads, particularly the Turks, but also to take control of much of the western trade routes. These groups in turn provided commercial links to nomadic and settled people of their Central Asia homelands. As a result, Chang'an became intensely cosmopolitan.
Serving as both the eastern terminus of the Silk Roads and the northern end of the Grand Canal, this city had large communities of non-Chinese ethnic groups who had settled there to take advantage of trade. By the 9th century, Uighurs dominated money lending, Sogdians ran the popular imported wine shops, and Turks were involved in the trade of many goods and Buddhist relics. As with all empires, the expansion of the Byzantine empire broadened the groups of people participating in commerce.
This began in the previous time period when Justinian temporarily conquered parts of northern Africa and Italy from the Vandals. Although these conquests were temporary, Byzantine trade connected Constantinople with commercial cities such as Alexandria and Tripoli as well as the islands of Crete and Sicily. When the Italian city-states emerged, they depended on imports of grain and textiles coming in from the Byzantine Empire.
Another group of people pulled into the orbit of Byzantine trade was the state of Kievan Rus , or Russia. Having dissolved tribal loyalties and forged an unstoppable nomadic cavalry on the Central Asia steppes, Genghis Khan went on to conquer the largest land empire in history. The duration of the Mongol Empire was short compared to others, but never before or since has a single empire controlled the Eurasian land mass from China to Eastern Europe. When the conquests were done the entire length of the Silk Roads was in their domain and the Mongols settled down and enjoyed the benefits of trade.
In an era known as the Pax Mongolica , or Peace of the Mongols, trade flourished under the protection of a flexible legal system and diplomatic protocols. They punished thieves and pirates.
Key Concept 3. The Eurasian Economic Union pulls the customs and economic integration gravity towards Moscow, and there is little chance of a pan-Turkic customs union. In previous pieces, we looked at some winners and losers of economic globalization, the environmental aspect of globalization, cultural globalization and digital globalization. CRC Press. It spread quickly through practices of trade, warfare, and diffusion characteristic of this period.
To extend commercial connections to Western European markets, the Mongols encouraged the building of port cities such as Kaffa on the Black Sea. They pushed trade outside of their empire by forcing Chinese to emigrate to South East Asia and form merchant communities in the trading ports there.
Sebastian Saez. World Bank. Maurice Schiff. Michael Finger. Luc De Wulf. Jean-Pierre Chauffour.
Daria Taglioni. Charles Kunaka. Will Martin. Andrew R Morrison. Kym Anderson. Brian H. Gordon De Brouwer. Research Fellow Bernard M Hoekman.
Who sets the terms of international trade? Xian, China, At some point during the 1st century BC, silk was introduced to the Roman Empire, where it was considered an exotic luxury and became extremely popular, with imperial edicts being issued to control prices. Its popularity continued throughout the Middle Ages, with detailed Byzantine regulations for the manufacture of silk clothes, illustrating its importance as a quintessentially royal fabric and an important source of revenue for the crown.
Additionally, the needs of the Byzantine Church for silk garments and hangings were substantial. This luxury item was thus one of the early impetuses in the development of trading routes from Europe to the Far East. Knowledge about silk production was very valuable and, despite the efforts of the Chinese emperor to keep it a closely guarded secret, it did eventually spread beyond China, first to India and Japan, then to the Persian Empire and finally to the west in the 6th century AD.
Moreover, to the emperor who plied them with many questions as to whether he might have the secret, the monks replied that certain worms were manufacturers of silk… the worms could certainly not be brought here alive, but they could be grown easily and without difficulty; the eggs of single hatchings are innumerable; as soon as they are laid men cover them with dung and keep them warm for as long as it is necessary so that they produce insects.
When they had announced these tidings, led on by liberal promises of the emperor to prove the fact, they returned to India. When they had brought the eggs to Byzantium, the method having been learned, as I have said, they changed them by metamorphosis into worms which feed on the leaves of mulberry.
Thus began the art of making silk from that time on in the Roman Empire. Statue of a Foreign Merchant, Tang Dynasty. These routes developed over time and according to shifting geopolitical contexts throughout history. Similarly, whilst extensive trade took place over the network of rivers that crossed the Central Asian steppes in the early Middle Ages, their water levels rose and fell, and sometimes dried up altogether, and trade routes shifted accordingly.
Click to expand Maritime trade was another extremely important branch of this global trade network. Most often, individual merchant caravans would cover specific sections of the routes, pausing to rest and replenish supplies, or stopping altogether and selling on their cargos at points throughout the length of the roads, leading to the growth of lively trading cities and ports.
The spread of Buddhism followed trade routes in the centuries after its foundation in India. Dazu, China, This mosque in the heart of Xian is a lasting testament to the cultural exchanges that occurred along the Silk Road. Caravanserai were roadside inns instrumental to the spread of culture and religions such as Buddhism and Islam along the Silk Road.
Travelling the Silk Roads. Camel caravans were one of the most effective ways to move goods overland; without this animal, hearty and capable of covering large distances under extreme conditions, there would likely have been no Silk Road as we know it. Heishan Valley, China, Share this: Click to share on Twitter Opens in new window Click to share on Facebook Opens in new window Click to share on Pinterest Opens in new window Click to email this to a friend Opens in new window Click to print Opens in new window. Post to Cancel. Post was not sent - check your email addresses!
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